Gender in the digital age: exploring innovative practices and women’s involvement

Introduction

In our contemporary globalized world, women and adolescent girls in various countries across the globe continue to face constant hardships and obstacles, ranging from gender-based violence to prevalent gender inequalities and deeply rooted gendered socio-cultural norms, which hinder their emancipation and development and negatively impact the implementation of gender equality and rights. Despite these circumstances, different advancements, such as emerging innovative solutions and technologies, can play a significant role in relation to the development and empowerment of women in various sectors of society globally. It thus becomes ever more necessary to apply cross-cutting approaches, such as a critical gender lens and a rights-based approach[1] to a wide range of development sectors and issue areas, including, but not limited to, education, political participation, and economic development, while considering, at the same time, the role that technology can have in these domains and analyzing its socio-cultural, global implications.

Generally speaking, women have less access to technology. Globally, there are 200 million more men than women with Internet access, and women are 21% less likely to have a mobile phone.[2] In developing countries, this mode of communication is fundamentally important as phones provide access to security, containment networks/organization, early warning systems, mobile health care and money transfers.

In addition to strengthening women’s access to these information and ‘soft’ technologies,[3] it would be important to ensure the use of traditional media such as radio, print and television to transmit essential information, including on violence against women. In fact, in light of the current COVID-19 crisis, where women are more susceptible to experiencing gender-based violence due to the imposed lockdown measures, special measures should be adopted to facilitate complaints, reinforcing existing mechanisms and contemplating alternative measures.[4] Technology should thus become a facilitating means for filing complaints, through mediums such as smart phones and silent messaging, virtual police stations, panic buttons, geolocation, and even the use of social networks (Whatsapp, Facebook and Instagram).[5] This could positively reinforce the need for women to be able to independently and freely gain access to basic, fundamental rights without feeling susceptible to external pressures and constraints, which further limit their efforts in seeking necessary resources.

Various emerging programs and innovative tactics have been implemented and put into practice, especially in vulnerable contexts and where women are targeted as minorities in their communities, in order to raise awareness and challenge consistent stereotypes. In African countries, for example, women have embraced the ‘blogging phenomenon’, with blogs being perceived as a positive and effective mode to promote women’s equality and empowerment. Thus, the Internet, and other information and communications technologies, (ICTs), have the potential to support the economic, political, and social empowerment of women, and the promotion of gender equality.[6]

At the same time, while analyzing and exploring the various methods implemented in different countries, a holistic and balanced understanding across genders should be utilized. This strategy could be helpful in order to properly assess the impact and effectiveness that these methods and initiatives have on each respective community. This would allow, through challenging and problematizing such modes, to tactfully address and contribute to the goal of achieving gender equality and empowerment in congruence with the use of technological advancements as drivers of change.

Educational Practices: Integrating Technologies in schools

In Kenya, young adolescent girls have been limited in being able to exercise the right to education. At the same time, there has been a greater access to digital technologies within the country and the use of mobile phones has increased exponentially. Girls have contributed to this uptake, using mobile phones for multiple purposes including leisure, socialising, and education.[7] Furthermore, creating interconnected networks amongst women – not only at the local but also at the regional and national levels – in exposing and challenging gender stereotypes and developing productive and engaging education environments, could be reflective of reaching more positive and innovative outcomes of education practices within a global context. In this regard, however, as it is evident through the example of Kenya, the education policy landscape is fraught with tensions that often curtail the potential for girls to use mobile phones, thus impacting their access to various rights – including that of education.[8]

Introducing various mobile media practices in the educational scheme – through a creative approach to how girls can use mobile phones to realise their rights in a digital age[9] – could have significant outcomes. In a research study conducted specifically in Nairobi, Kenya, notwithstanding the obstacles faced with limiting girls’ rights to education, leisure, and play, most girls continued to utilize their mobile phones in ways which enhanced their life choices.[10] As the digital age continues to expand and evolve in parallel with various technological advances and innovations, education remains a valuable sector in which these factors could enhance young people in learning to exercise their rights. It is thus imperative to create an effective and critical approach while examining fruitful tactics amongst stakeholders in order to engage technology in educational practices across the globe.

The education policy landscape is fraught with tensions that often curtail the potential for girls to use mobile phones

Notwithstanding the efforts to implement technologies within learning environments, there are also various frameworks and factors to consider that intrinsically affect the ways in which diverse education practices are reflected in the society and the benefits that they provide for women and men. This aspect emphasizes the need to find long-lasting solutions which will not only benefit the local and rural contexts, but would have an impact on the larger debate regarding the roles and aspects of non-formal education in achieving gender equality.

The study carried out in the Kenyan context explored how mobile phones could facilitate after-school access to books by introducing 22 students at a Nairobi girls’ school to two apps: biNu (quizzes, dictionary, games, YouTube) & Worldreader (formal and non-formal books). When considering which kinds of interventions would be beneficial to girls’ education, the integration of technology in school or other supervised settings, may thus be considered as a way of improving the quality of education in the country. Furthermore, implementing, for example, group exercises using tablets to collaboratively solve problems could further ensure the formal educational content and allow for socialization amongst the youth, thus complementing the formal educational model.

Different unique tactics and programs are therefore critical in order to effectively address the various problems and challenges faced by women and girls in communities across the world, while also addressing the need to engage both women and men in order to progressively achieve gender equality. Studies such as the one mentioned are indeed reflective of a larger and pressing debate pertaining to women’s rights and further contribute to raising public awareness about the need to continue to implement effective educational practices integrated by technological advancements, while investigating positive solutions and beneficial change in regards to the emancipation of women across the globe.

Political Participation and Technology: Analyzing the rights-based approach (RBA) in achieving gender-quality

The rights-based approach’ processes of building capacity for women and marginalized people more generally, allows for the RBA approach for gender equality and development to transform power structures while working for gender equality and development.[11] The specific RBA practices in connection to technology and innovative approaches, used by certain activist groups, are essential in understanding the way in which such aspects are implemented throughout various ‘women’s human rights organizations’ both at the regional and national level.

In the article, Young feminists’ creative strategies to challenge the status quo: a view from FRIDA, an analysis of the way in which the feminist movement is indeed a key force for change, fueling important shifts in power to ensure the rights of the most marginalized,[12] is investigated. Throughout the years, the feminist movement has undergone various shifts and transformations, while continuing to devote itself, through the challenges of time, to the rights of women across the world.

Young feminist organising is springing up in all corners of the globe – from Mexico to Morocco to Malaysia – powered by brave young women, girls and youth in general who are creating the change the world needs. The work of FRIDA, The Young Feminist Fund, a young feminist-led organization that began in 2010 to provide young feminist leaders with the resources to amplify their voices and initiatives[13] and the key findings of a 2016 report, Brave, Creative, Resilient: The Global State of Young Feminist Organizing, done in conjunction with the Association for Women’s Rights in Development (AWID), are explored[14] with the aim of building on existing data regarding the state of young feminist organizing and portray the way in which they are constantly developing innovative practices, at a grassroot level, in order to address many of the structural and systematic issues they face.

Young feminists today emerge as a powerful force in implementing change and challenging the public debate, from a diverse set of lenses and perspectives, regarding women, gender role and relations, and gender itself – at the community, regional, national and international levels. When considering specifically the rights-based approach and its effectiveness, it is necessary to understand the importance of capacity building as part of programs and policies, thus allowing individuals and communities to become their own self-advocates, thereby making these policies and programs more attuned to local particulars.[15] In respect to the specific goals implemented by FRIDA, over the past two years, the top three strategies that emerged were: awareness raising, capacity-building, and advocacy and lobbying. This could support the positive and effective strategy implemented by the organization in order to focus not only on the trainings and capacity building of the local communities in which they work, but also on the internal strengthening of the organization. The article indeed re-emphasizes what young feminists are witnessing: the power of solidarity, collective (and self-) care, networking, and bringing together creative strategies such as […] technology to rethink and create new ways of resistance and resilience.[16] Furthermore, through the Capacity Development grant that FRIDA awards, various underrepresented and marginalized groups are able to benefit from the capacity development strategies that are implemented and can thus receive necessary additional resources in order to promote leadership – including skills, spaces, and relationship-networking. These tools are therefore necessary in order to promote the engagement of young feminists in being able to voice and challenge pre-conceived and normative notions of inequality, rights violations, and injustices through a different set of contexts.

Young feminists today emerge as a powerful force in implementing change and challenging the public debate, from a diverse set of lenses and perspectives, regarding women, gender role and relations, and gender itself

Aside from the above critical strategies, there are also different dynamic and creative approaches – technological, mediatic, visual, and literary – which have been implemented by young feminist groups in the shared commitment to shed new light on the issues raised, while at the same time allowing, through collaborative action, for a positive change in their communities. In our modern day, technology and online platforms have been usually perceived as positive modes of connection between groups in order to increase awareness and advocate change. At the same time, it is important to consider the role of social media and online platforms in hindering and negatively impacting the effectiveness of such efforts by sharing misconstrued or false information. Nonetheless, through the specific examples of case studies across the globe, online platforms have been critical in supporting young activists to organize collective action […] and have also enabled younger women and girls to have a direct link to audiences to hear their stories, from their perspectives.[17]

An example of an interesting mediatic form of communication amongst women across the world, could be that of Women’s Voices Now (WVN). Through unique social-change films focusing on women’s and girls’ rights issues and by providing active support to filmmakers who give voice to unheard women and girls, this NGO drives positive social change by raising awareness of the struggles and triumphs of women and girls seeking full access to their political, civil, and economic rights.[18] As an additional anecdote to supporting mediatic productions by women within social change, although through a different context, an ethnographic study of a participatory video workshop conducted with rural women in Fiji, observed how communities engage with processes of production for empowerment. The study found that rural women in Fiji integrate local norms and practices in the production of programme content, and use social capital – their relationships and social networks – as a key element in video production to highlight community needs and linkages.[19] In fact, the content produced by the women gave significance to women’s work, their abilities, their skills, and their potential as income producers, as well as their empowering networks.

In the specific political and social change realm, the organization ‘Fe-Male’,[20] which was founded in 2012 by a group of young feminists in Beirut, Lebanon, is committed to raising gender awareness through mass and social media involvement. Another prominent example in this respect could be that of a student-run political organization based in Florence, Italy called ‘Collettivo Spine’. The examples of associations such as Fe-Male and Collettivo Spine – the latter formed by young feminist activists politically engaged in publicly denouncing patriarchal and nationalist discourses – are interesting examples of the way in which youth-led networks across the globe are interconnected in fighting for the shared overall cause of advocating for pressing women’s rights issues.

Rural women in Fiji integrate local norms and practices in the production of programme content, and use social capital

Through online platforms, such as Facebook and Instagram, these organizations succeed in creating a “virtual community” and an open space to share ideas, stories, and take action in student protests and boycotts. One of the creative activities conducted by Fe-Male in their campaign to address the objectification of women in the media and the role this plays in contributing to gender-based violence, has been social media campaigns, which included visuals from their offline initiatives as well.[21] The success of organizations such as WNV, ‘Collettivo Spine’, and Fe-Male thus lies in the combination of successful communication strategies through the positive use of technology, and the courage and determination that young women have in addressing and standing up against a conservative and often chauvinistic culture.

Through collective action and organized events, walk-ins, and systematic protests, the members of the organizations are thus able to powerfully voice their opinions as well as inform the rest of the community through the use of social media campaigns: publishing events on their respective pages, circulating activities the organization is involved in, and sharing/ re-posting various relevant initiatives on their page from other young, political and activist organizations. These associations are in fact able to address not only the issues faced by the immediate, local community, but also those at the national level, through the use of social media networks, thus informing and engaging on a larger scale other young activists and possible stakeholders that are potentially interested in participating and engaging themselves to the movement.

Organizations such as these are indeed necessary today, as they are able to voice the needs and opinions of a continuously shifting and transforming young generation, thanks also to the foundational aspects of older generations of feminists, while at the same time developing new and innovative political practices and approaches. In fact, through a series of interviews conducted in their research,[22] a young feminist from Tunisia emphasizes how: “younger feminist groups are much aware politically, are much more intersectional, and more radical… I believe that young feminists adopt these new strategies because they are more aware of the needs of younger generations.”

There are many examples of efforts made by organizations such as Fe-Male and Collettivo Spine that are essential in better understanding and representing the potentially positive and effective contributions of using a rights-based approach within technological advances in successfully implementing such practices.

The above organizations, in fact, further succeed in applying some combination of RBA practices by using intersectionality analytically as well as by building coalitions and networks through connected action with others who could share the same goals.[23] In these contexts, the RBA is thus a necessary component in order to develop effective solutions and implement substantial change as a result of the devotion and commitment of these community organizations.

These collective efforts are fundamentally necessary in modern society, especially from the perspective of youth, as there is not a better time than now to take action in challenging institutional hierarchies and normative policies, especially by increasing the positive impact that underrepresented and marginalized groups can have on society.

An interesting anecdote that is necessary to recognize and assess, pertains to the ways in which a rights-based approach has been also integrated and implemented through the framework of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This emphasizes the importance of practicing a rights-based approach through a measurement scheme that includes process and outcomes: “the processes of gender equality and development interventions can and should be measured as outcomes.”[24] In this respect, when considering the theme of human rights principles, portrayed through the framework of the 2030 Agenda, the latter indeed succeeds in addressing equality in terms of outcomes and the ways in which this aspect is implemented in different contexts and settings: [25] equality must apply not only to opportunities, but also to outcomes.

The processes of gender equality and development interventions can and should be measured as outcomes

Therefore, through a significant achievement of inclusion, the 2030 Agenda functions in understanding the mechanism of interventions based on outcomes as a necessary and transformative development of the practice of the RBA approach. At the same time, it is also important to consider and recognize the different challenges that the Agenda may face. When taking into account specifically Goal 5 and understanding the role that women have in political participation and leadership, women’s leadership in civil society and collective organizing emerge as fundamental aspects that are missing from the realm of decision-making as critical components of women’s rights.[26] This is indeed a very necessary aspect that should be recognized in the gender-specific elements of the Agenda since one of the most powerful indicators of women’s voice and influence in bringing about gender-responsive policy change is the strength of women’s collective action.[27] Through the use of effective and innovative technologies, the power of collective and community-based action is thus significant in influencing hierarchical structures and can further empower women to work together to use resources at a local level in order to implement profound changes at a national one.

Economic Empowerment: Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Access and Use

Innovation, technology and entrepreneurship are engines for advancing gender equality and women’s empowerment by increasing women’s access to education and socio-economic opportunities.[28] In fact, in countries across the world, a wide range of initiatives have been conducted in order to illustrate how ICTs embedded in broader communication for development strategies can provide the driving power to change and ensure better outcomes for marginalized adolescent girls.[29] However, although young people continue to drive early adoption of ICTs, existing inequalities are still dividing ownership and use of ICTs along economic, social and gender lines.[30] It is therefore important to consider the way in which proper technology advancements can be integrated within a rural context in order to maximize the benefits for the community and women at large. Creating firstly a basis for a positive environment in order to correctly implement and use technology advances within it, is thus necessary and indispensable for positive social change. Within this context, it is further necessary to not oversee the requirement of a rights-based approach to ‘basic’ access and connectivity, so as to question indeed what models of access and connectivity will work for the marginalised peoples and countries, in a matter that promotes gender justice.[31]

In this regard, The Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA), a union of about 530,000 poor women working in the informal sector in India, aims to achieve full employment and self-reliance for women workers and does so by focusing both on work and on support in other related areas like income, food and social security.[32] Through various grassroot level projects and training and capacity building with ICTs, the organization has shown that such technologies can support women working in the informal sector, bringing greater livelihood security to economically vulnerable households, living in increasingly fragile environments.[33] This is an important aspect to consider as it could indeed potentially bridge the existing ‘digital divide’ through the use of applying appropriate technological techniques with the needs of its members in a productive and efficient manner. Similarly, one of the projects developed through the Association for Progressive Communications Women’s Rights Programme (WRP),[34] known as GenderIt,[35] provides a space for reflection, influence and advocacy on internet policy in relation to the rights and demands of women. Through the use of interconnected online networks, an understanding on how women can be successful participants and productively engage in the digital age could be achieved, while also addressing present barriers in outlining the fundamental goal to achieving positive socio-economic outcomes for women.

In respect to economic growth, as women become increasingly active users of technology, their participation in designing and developing tech products and services will help to enhance technology’s relevance for women as consumers, further boosting innovation and economic growth.[36] In fact, in respect specifically to ICTs, expanding women’s access to ICT jobs would not only advance economic opportunities for women, their families, and their communities, but it would also help address the shortage of skilled workers for these jobs and grow the digital economy.[37] In these contexts, it is indeed necessary to consider the role of the public and private sectors in addressing persisting barriers that women and girls face in countries whose economies stand to gain the most from greater participation of women in vital ICT positions. In this regard, the Global Innovation Coalition for Change (GICC) is a dynamic partnership between UN Women and key representatives from the private sector, academic and not-for-profit institutions focused on developing the innovation market to work better for women and accelerate the achievement of gender equality and women’s empowerment.[38]

Another aspect to consider in relation to economic development, could be the effectiveness of providing women with access to mobile phones and specifically Mobile Financial Services (MFS). In fact, MFS specifically offer a useful tool for women’s economic and social development. By exercising the service provided, women will decide if it meets their financial management with greater convenience, reliability, security, and privacy than current tools, and thus will appreciate the value of both the MFS and the mobile phone itself.[39] This further could support the critical role that women can play in contributing to the success of an innovative technology in the developing world, such as mobile financial services deployment.

Forward-thinking countries have launched media campaigns to promote women’s full engagement and socioeconomic empowerment through ICTs and have provided special funding for women-owned small and medium enterprises that provide ICT.[40] Furthermore, in an effort to increase access to finance, UN Women is developing an accelerator venture fund to provide access to finance to women enterprises to invest in scalable innovations that accelerate gender equality.[41] Including a gender-responsive approach in the innovation cycle is thus imperative and critical in order to ensure that a given innovation meets 100% of its target customer base. This would also help to address and meet consistent obstacles faced by women in more vulnerable contexts, while actively participating in the socio-economic realm and achieving the right resources to be involved in such a process.

Forward-thinking countries have launched media campaigns to promote women’s full engagement and socioeconomic empowerment through ICTs

In order to help women in the ICT sector, it is necessary to engage various actors and stakeholders in order to implement change at the global level. For example, governments, donors, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) should not only prioritize initiatives that help bridge the gender gap in access to mobile phones and the internet, but further should design more employment and job skills training programs to steer women toward jobs that build ICT skills.[42] However, at the same time, considering the difficulties women face in achieving such resources, more work needs to be done to tackle the root causes of why women and girls are denied control over resources. In fact, without addressing the power dynamics at play, there is a risk that their opportunities will remain limited and girls will not be supported to reach their full potential.[43]

Conclusions and Recommendations

As the current digital age is expanding and transforming at an increasing pace, the role of women in contributing to technological and innovative advances, is ever more necessary and important in a variety of sectors. In order to achieve women empowerment and supporting development, when considering the relationship between gender and innovative technology, it is important to keep in mind and analyze the socio-cultural, global implications.

Therefore, further research in this regard should be taken into consideration, as well as an analysis on the ways in which technology has facilitated the socio-cultural and economic advancements of women in developing countries. It is also necessary to explore the obstacles faced and methods used in order to enforce what needs to happen to trigger greater economic advancement, increased political participation, and access to resources in the education sector for women and girls globally.

In respect to UNICRI’S goals in relation to women empowerment and countering gender-based violence to support development, expected and generated outcomes include: increased effectiveness of legislation, policies, national action plans and operational systems to enhance women equality, political participation and empowerment aimed at ending gender-based violence and supporting development; enhanced access of women and girls, especially in more vulnerable contexts, to protection and essential, safe and adequate health, education and social services.[44]

These considerations are further required in order to approach the aspect of women’s involvement in the technological realm, so as to productively address the potential women have in this sector in relation to the various areas of society at the global level.

Bibliography

Bashi et al., “Young Feminists’ Creative Strategies to Challenge the Status Quo: A View from FRIDA”. Gender & Development. Vol. 26, No. 3 (2018).

Carella and Ackerly, “Ignoring Rights Is Wrong: Re-Politicizing Gender Equality and Development with the Rights-Based Approach,” International Feminist Journal of Politics, Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017).

Ronda Zelezny-Green, “Now I want to use it to learn more’: using mobile phones to further the educational rights of the girl child in Kenya,” Gender & Development, Vol. 26., No.2. (2018).

Razavi, “The 2030 Agenda: Challenges of Implementation to Attain Gender Equality and Women’s Rights,” Gender & Development, Vol. 24, No. 1 (2016).

Collettivo Spine Home Page. Facebook. (2019). See https://www.facebook.com/collettivospine/

“Rights-based approach,” UN Women. (2013). See https://www.endvawnow.org/en/articles/1498-rights-based-approach.html

COVID-19 in Women’s Lives: Reasons to Recognize the Differential Impacts. Inter-American Commission of Women. (2020)

Somolu, “‘Telling Our Own Stories’: African Women Blogging for Social Change,” Gender and Development, Vol. 15, No. 3 (Nov. 2007).

Harris, “Transforming Images: Reimagining Women’s Work Through Participatory Video,” Development in Practice, Vol. 19, No. 4 (2009).

Women’s Voices Now. Homepage. (2020). See https://www.womensvoicesnow.org/our-mission/

Fe-Male. Homepage. (2020). See https://www.fe-male.org/

Making Innovation and Technology Work For Women. UN Women. (2017).

Bachan and Raftree, “Integrating Information and Communication Technologies into Communication for Development Strategies to Support and Empower Marginalized Adolescent Girls.” UNICEF. (2013).

Gurumurthy, “Gender and ICT Access and Appropriation: Taking a Rights-Based Approach” (2008).

BRIDGE, “Gender and ICTs,” Gender and Development InBrief, Issue 15 (Sept. 2004).

Association for Progressive Communications. Women’s Rights Programme Homepage. (2020). See https://www.apc.org/en/wrp

GenderIT. Homepage. (2020). https://www.genderit.org/

Chang and Powell, “Women in Tech as a Driver for Growth in Emerging Economies.” Council on Foreign Relations. (2016)

Melhelm and Tandon, “Information and Communications Technologies for Women’s Socio-Economic Empowerment” (2009), World Bank Group Working Paper.  No. 176. The World Bank. (2009).

Herzhoff and Kanwal, “Building Skills for Life Annual Report.” Plan UK. (2014).

Women empowerment and countering gender-based violence to support development. UNICRI Topics. http://www.unicri.it/topics/violence_women/

Unlocking the Potential: Women and Mobile Financial Services in Emerging Markets. GSMA.

Gill et al., “Bridging the Gender Divide: How Technology can advance Women Economically,” ICRW. (2010).

The Author

Soraya Binetti is a Master’s graduate in Global Development Studies from Columbia University, New York. Her field of inquiry has focused on exploring, through a transnational perspective, questions of gender and humanitarian affairs, with a specific concentration on political and socio-cultural debates regarding migration and border-crossing in a contemporary globalized world. She has experience in the communications and public relations sectors within an international context.


[1]     A rights-based approach integrates international human rights and humanitarian law norms, standards and principles into plans, policies, services and processes of humanitarian intervention and development related to violence against women. Rights-based approach. UN Women. (2013, July 03). See https://www.endvawnow.org/en/articles/1498-rights-based-approach.html

[2]     COVID-19 in Women’s Lives: Reasons to Recognize the Differential Impacts. Inter-American Commission of Women. (2020)

[3]     “Soft technologies”: Internet access and telecommunication devices that facilitate the flow of information and knowledge.

      Gill et al., “Bridging the Gender Div ide: How Technology can advance Women Economically,” ICRW. (2010).

[4]     COVID-19 in Women’s Lives: Reasons to Recognize the Differential Impacts. Inter-American Commission of Women. (2020)

[5]     COVID-19 in Women’s Lives: Reasons to Recognize the Differential Impacts. Inter-American Commission of Women. (2020)

[6]     Somolu, “‘Telling Our Own Stories’: African Women Blogging for Social Change,” Gender and Development, Vol. 15, No. 3 (Nov. 2007).

[7]     Ronda Zelezny-Green (2018) ‘Now I want to use it to learn more’: using mobile phones to further the educational rights of the girl child in Kenya, Gender & Development, 26:2,299-311

[8]     Ronda Zelezny-Green (2018) ‘Now I want to use it to learn more’: using mobile phones to further the educational rights of the girl child in Kenya, Gender & Development, 26:2,299-311

[9]     Ronda Zelezny-Green (2018) ‘Now I want to use it to learn more’: using mobile phones to further the educational rights of the girl child in Kenya, Gender & Development, 26:2,299-311

[10]    Ronda Zelezny-Green (2018) ‘Now I want to use it to learn more’: using mobile phones to further the educational rights of the girl child in Kenya, Gender & Development, 26:2,299-311

[11]    Carella and Ackerly, “Ignoring Rights Is Wrong: Re-Politicizing Gender Equality and Development with the Rights-Based Approach,” International Feminist Journal of Politics, Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017).

[12]    Bashi et al., “Young Feminists’ Creative Strategies to Challenge the Status Quo: A View from FRIDA”. Gender & Development. Vol. 26, No. 3 (2018).

[13]    Bashi et al., “Young Feminists’ Creative Strategies to Challenge the Status Quo: A View from FRIDA”. Gender & Development. Vol. 26, No. 3 (2018).

[14]    Bashi et al., “Young Feminists’ Creative Strategies to Challenge the Status Quo: A View from FRIDA”. Gender & Development. Vol. 26, No. 3 (2018).

[15]    Carella and Ackerly, “Ignoring Rights Is Wrong: Re-Politicizing Gender Equality and Development with the Rights-Based Approach,” International Feminist Journal of Politics, Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017).

[16]    Bashi et al., “Young Feminists’ Creative Strategies to Challenge the Status Quo: A View from FRIDA”. Gender & Development. Vol. 26, No. 3 (2018).

[17]    Bashi et al., “Young Feminists’ Creative Strategies to Challenge the Status Quo: A View from FRIDA”. Gender & Development. Vol. 26, No. 3 (2018).

[18]    Women’s Voices Now. Homepage. (2020). See https://www.womensvoicesnow.org/our-mission/

[19]    Harris, “Transforming Images: Reimagining Women’s Work Through Participatory Video,” Development in Practice, Vol. 19, No. 4 (2009).

[20]    Fe-Male. Homepage. (2020). See https://www.fe-male.org/

[21]    Bashi et al., “Young Feminists’ Creative Strategies to Challenge the Status Quo: A View from FRIDA”. Gender & Development. Vol. 26, No. 3 (2018).

[22]    Bashi et al., “Young Feminists’ Creative Strategies to Challenge the Status Quo: A View from FRIDA”. Gender & Development. Vol. 26, No. 3 (2018).

[23]    Carella and Ackerly, “Ignoring Rights Is Wrong: Re-Politicizing Gender Equality and Development with the Rights-Based Approach,” International Feminist Journal of Politics, Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017).

[24]    Carella and Ackerly, “Ignoring Rights Is Wrong: Re-Politicizing Gender Equality and Development with the Rights-Based Approach,” International Feminist Journal of Politics, Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017).

[25]    Razavi, “The 2030 Agenda: Challenges of Implementation to Attain Gender Equality and Women’s Rights,” Gender & Development, Vol. 24, No. 1 (2016).

[26]    Razavi, “The 2030 Agenda: Challenges of Implementation to Attain Gender Equality and Women’s Rights,” Gender & Development, Vol. 24, No. 1 (2016).

[27]    Razavi, “The 2030 Agenda: Challenges of Implementation to Attain Gender Equality and Women’s Rights,” Gender & Development, Vol. 24, No. 1 (2016).

[28]    Making Innovation and Technology Work For Women. UN Women. (2017).

[29]    Bachan and Raftree, “Integrating Information and Communication Technologies into Communication for Development Strategies to Support and Empower Marginalized Adolescent Girls.” UNICEF. (2013).

[30]    Bachan and Raftree, “Integrating Information and Communication Technologies into Communication for Development Strategies to Support and Empower Marginalized Adolescent Girls.” UNICEF. (2013).

[31]    Gurumurthy, “Gender and ICT Access and Appropriation: Taking a Rights-Based Approach” (2008).

[32]    BRIDGE, “Gender and ICTs,” Gender and Development InBrief, Issue 15 (Sept. 2004).

[33]    BRIDGE, “Gender and ICTs,” Gender and Development InBrief, Issue 15 (Sept. 2004).

[34]    Association for Progressive Communications. Women’s Rights Programme Homepage. (2020) See https://www.apc.org/en/wrp

[35]    GenderIT. Homepage. (2020). https://www.genderit.org/

[36]    Chang and Powell, “Women in Tech as a Driver for Growth in Emerging Economies.” Council on Foreign Relations. (2016)

[37]    Chang and Powell, “Women in Tech as a Driver for Growth in Emerging Economies.” Council on Foreign Relations. (2016)

[38]    Making Innovation and Technology Work For Women. UN Women. (2017).

[39]    Unlocking the Potential: Women and Mobile Financial Services in Emerging Markets. GSMA.

[40]    Melhelm and Tandon, “Information and Communications Technologies for Women’s Socio-Economic Empowerment” (2009), World Bank Group Working Paper.  No. 176. The World Bank. (2009).

[41]    Making Innovation and Technology Work For Women. UN Women. (2017).

[42]    Chang and Powell, “Women in Tech as a Driver for Growth in Emerging Economies.” Council on Foreign Relations. (2016)

[43]    Herzhoff and Kanwal, “Building Skills for Life Annual Report.” Plan UK. (2014)

[44]    Women empowerment and countering gender-based violence to support development. UNICRI Topics.